Hemophilia＜（血友病）＞: “The Royal Disease”by Yelena Aronova-Tiuntseva and Clyde Freeman Herreid, University at Buffalo, State University of New York
Finally, our speculative natures compel us to mention that in 1995 two British brothers produced a new book (Queen Victoria’s Gene) with a breathtaking suggestion.
Professors Malcom Potts, an embryologist at Berkeley, and William Potts, a zoologist at Britain’s Lancaster University, suggest that Queen Victoria might have been illegitimate.
They point out that neither her father nor her husband was a hemophiliac.
So either there was a spontaneous mutationa one-in-50,000 chance or Victoria is the daughter of someone other than the Duke of Kent.
Think of the possible consequences to European history: no Victoria, and the current Prince of Hanover, Ernst (descendent of the brother of Victoria’s father), would be King of England today.
More importantly, no Victoria would mean no hemophilic son of the Czar of Russia, no Rasputin, and no revolution?
What are the chances of this scenario?
・・・One of Victoria’s children, her youngest son, Leopold, was affected by the blood-clotting disease haemophilia B and two of her five daughters, Alice and Beatrice, were carriers. Royal haemophiliacs descended from Victoria included her great-grandsons, Tsarevich Alexei of Russia, Alfonso, Prince of Asturias, and Infante Gonzalo of Spain. The presence of the disease in Victoria’s descendants, but not in her ancestors, led to modern speculation that her true father was not the Duke of Kent but a haemophiliac. There is no documentary evidence of a haemophiliac in connection with Victoria’s mother, and as male carriers always suffer the disease, even if such a man had existed he would have been seriously ill. It is more likely that the mutation arose spontaneously because Victoria’s father was old at the time of her conception and haemophilia arises more frequently in the children of older fathers. Spontaneous mutations account for about 30% of cases.・・・
215.^ Rogaev, Evgeny I. et al. (2009) “Genotype Analysis Identifies the Cause of the ‘Royal Disease'”, Science, vol. 326, no. 5954, p. 817, doi:10.1126/science.1180660, retrieved 13 October 2010
216.^ Potts and Potts, pp. 55–65, quoted in Hibbert p. 217; Packard, pp. 42–43
217.^ Jones, Steve (1996) In the Blood, BBC documentary
218.^ McKusick, Victor A. (1965) “The Royal Hemophilia”, Scientific American, vol. 213, p. 91; Jones, Steve (1993) The Language of the Genes, London: HarperCollins, ISBN 0-00-255020-2, p. 69; Jones, Steve (1996) In The Blood: God, Genes and Destiny, London: HarperCollins, ISBN 0-00-255511-5, p. 270; Rushton, Alan R. (2008) Royal Maladies: Inherited Diseases in the Royal Houses of Europe, Victoria, British Columbia: Trafford, ISBN 1-4251-6810-8, pp. 31–32
Alexei Nikolaevich, ・・・ (12 August [O.S. 30 July] 1904 — 17 July 1918), of the House of Romanov, was Tsesarevich (the heir apparent・・・) of Russia, and the youngest child and the only son of Emperor Nicholas II of Russia and Alexandra Feodorovna. His mother’s reliance on the starets Grigori Rasputin to treat Alexei’s haemophilia helped bring about the end of Imperial Russia. He was murdered, along with the rest of his family on 17 July 1918, following the Russian Revolution of 1917・・・.・・・
He had inherited hemophilia from his mother Alexandra, a condition that could be traced back to her maternal grandmother Queen Victoria. In 2009, genetic analysis determined specifically that he suffered from hemophilia B. His hemophilia led to controversy, as it led to gossip that his mother was having an affair with the Russian starets, Grigori Rasputin. Rasputin claimed to be able to “heal” Alexei when he was on the brink of death after spells of hemophilia-related complications. There are various explanations for Rasputin’s ability, such as that Rasputin hypnotized Alexei, administered herbs to him, or that his advice to the Tsarina not to let the doctors bother Alexei too much aided the boy’s healing. Others believe he truly possessed a supernatural healing ability or that his prayers to God saved the boy. Alexei and his sisters were taught to view Rasputin as “Our Friend” and to exchange confidences with him. Alexei was well aware that he might not live to adulthood. When he was ten, his older sister Olga found him lying on his back looking at the clouds and asked him what he was doing. “I like to think and wonder,” Alexei replied. Olga asked him what he liked to think about. “Oh, so many things,” the boy responded. “I enjoy the sun and the beauty of summer as long as I can. Who knows whether one of these days I shall not be prevented from doing it?”
・・・I estimate that Japan needs to welcome some 10 million immigrants over the next 50 years to avoid the negative consequences of population decline. That would bring immigrant numbers to about 10% of the population, the level in the U.K., France and Germany.・・・
・・・in 10 years, the farming population will decline by roughly half. The fishing industry faces the same fate. ・・・
One consequence of a shrinking population is that visionaries and risk-takers–entrepreneurs in business, politics, education, journalism and the arts–become scarcer and scarcer. That compounds the phenomenon that a society that was highly homogeneous to begin with has educated its people with standardized content in a culture that discourages too much free thinking. Lack of fresh faces makes the country seem increasingly sterile.
Because Japan has traditionally been such a homogeneous place, many have feared the prospect of greater immigration. Yet a pro-immigration policy doesn’t have to undermine Japanese values or culture. If policy makers have the will to encourage greater immigration, they can find ways to do it well.・・・
Only 30% of foreign students graduating from Japanese universities stay in Japan. That number must be closer to 70%.・・・
At a minimum, any foreign worker in steady employment should be able to apply for permanent status.・・・
And despite caricatures of frightening or violent foreigners in the popular imagination, immigration won’t compromise public safety as long as Japan is attracting highly skilled, employed immigrants and allowing them and their families opportunities for social and economic advancement.・・・
Jordan’s King Abdullah II said Tuesday it may take “at least two or three years” to put in place an elected government to replace a royally appointed one.・・・
・・・Erdogan had wanted to convert Turkey’s parliamentary system into a presidential one based on the French model, with himself assuming the role of president. Voter turnout on Sunday was high — about 84 percent of eligible voters went to the polls. The Kurdish minority succeeded in winning 36 seats in the 550-seat parliament, which is more than they had ever won before, and which allows them a potential role in any development of a new constitution.
Erdogan’s conservative AKP won 326 seats. A super majority of 367 would have been needed to change the constitution without referendum.・・・
”The Turks are pragmatic to the core. They gave Erdogan this victory, not because he is a pious Muslim, but simply because he gave them a better country, with more than 8-percent growth. Of all the G-20 countries, only China has grown at a faster pace. Erdogan has turned Turkey into a confident actor in the region, and the people like that. Perhaps he deserves the most credit for breaking the political power of the military, and along the way giving new freedoms to Christians and Kurds in his country.・・・
In a letter to Stalin in 1932 — six years after Lenin’s death — Anna Ulyanova, Lenin’s older sister, wrote that their maternal grandfather “came from a poor Jewish family and was, according to his baptismal certificate, the son of Moses Blank.” Blank was born in Zhitomir, Ukraine. In her letter, Ulyanova said her brother “had always thought highly of Jews.” She also urged Stalin to reveal Lenin’s Jewish background, concluding that “it would be wrong to hide it from the masses.”
Stalin, however, ordered Ulyanova to keep Lenin’s Jewish roots under wraps. A few years later, Stalin began to purge Jews from among the leaders of the revolution. Prior to his death in 1953, furthermore, he was preparing to send the whole Jewish population living in the Soviet Union to concentration camps in Siberia.
・・・When World War II began, a German minority lived in the Sudetenlad, a region bordering Germany and Austria that Nazi Germany took charge of after the 1938 Munich Agreement. The following year, the Nazis invaded the rest of Czechoslovakia and stayed for the next six years until their defeat. The Czechs then drove out some three million Sudeten Germans in punishment for what was believed to be their part in the brutal occupation. ・・・