–A Conversation with Tsuyoshi Hasegawa–
ハセガワ教授、”Racing the Enemy: Stalin, Truman, and the Surrender of Japan”を執筆・出版後に、解釈に若干の変更があったようです。このインタビュー、08年にアップロードされて、未だ再生回数1,400と少し、というのは悲しすぎる。
Noted historian Tsuyoshi Hasegawa discusses his fascinating new book “Racing the Enemy: Stalin, Truman, and the Surrender of Japan” with Jack Talbot (Professor of History, UCSB). By fully integrating the three key actors in the story–the United States, the Soviet Union, and Japan–Hasegawa puts the last months of the war into international perspective. Series: “Voices” [2/2006] [Humanities] [Show ID: 11423]
『Supporters of gun rights in the US won a major legal victory today, when the highest court in the country ruled that an individual’s constitutional right to bear arms applied to every corner of the country and throughout its 50 states.』
This began two years ago, when the Supreme Court disregarded the plain words of the Second Amendment and overturned the District of Columbia’s handgun ban, deciding that the amendment gave individuals in the district, not just militias, the right to bear arms. Proceeding from that flawed logic, the court has now said the amendment applies to all states and cities, rendering Chicago’s ban on handgun ownership unenforceable. ・・・
The court acknowledged, as it did in the District of Columbia case, that the amendment did not confer “a right to keep and carry any weapon whatsoever in any manner whatsoever and for whatever purpose.” It cited a few examples of what it considered acceptable: limits on gun ownership by felons or the mentally ill, bans on carrying firearms in sensitive places like schools or government buildings and conditions on gun sales. ・・・
・・・The court’s decision・・・is both correct and potentially troubling. It is correct because the general tendency of the court has been to find that the amendments in the Bill of Rights・・・apply＜ in general＞ to state and local governments through the 14th Amendment’s due process clause.・・・
The ruling is potentially troubling, however, for the・・・threat that courts will step in to overturn reasonable legislative judgments that public safety requires certain restrictions on gun ownership. ・・・
『Unlike other countries, Japan doesn’t have strong interest groups pushing for weapons rights. Masahide Maeda, a Tokyo Metropolitan University professor who studies criminal law, said that the tightening of the laws reflects the Japanese idea of relying on authority in times of need, rather than arming oneself. 』
・・・For NATO soldiers, the last month has been the most deadly of the nine-year war, with 95 deaths so far in June, more than twice as many as a year ago,・・・
About 130 important insurgent figures have been captured or killed in Afghanistan over the past 120 days・・・
One specific sign of damage to the insurgent hierarchy from the accelerated Special Operations missions is that replacements for midlevel Taliban leaders taken out of the fight are increasingly younger, dropping in average age to the mid-20s from the mid-40s, according to alliance reports.
A number of insurgent leaders also have left their provincial bases inside Afghanistan and sought refuge in Pakistan, officials said. ・・・
The system the United States used for the past five years to rate the readiness of Afghanistan’s Army and police force was seriously flawed and there was no reliable way to measure any progress, according to a report by a special inspector general・・・
・・・on Monday, federal prosecutors accused 11 people of being part of a Russian espionage ring, living under false names and deep cover in a patient scheme to penetrate what one coded message called American “policy making circles.”
An F.B.I. investigation that began at least seven years ago culminated with the arrest on Sunday of 10 people in Yonkers, Boston and northern Virginia. The documents detailed what the authorities called the “Illegals Program,” an ambitious, long-term effort by the S.V.R., the successor to the Soviet K.G.B., to plant Russian spies in the United States to gather information and recruit more agents.
The alleged agents were directed to gather information on nuclear weapons, American policy toward Iran, C.I.A. leadership, Congressional politics and many other topics・・・
Criminal complaints filed in Federal District Court in Manhattan on Monday read like an old-fashioned cold war thriller: Spies swapping identical orange bags as they brushed past one another in a train station stairway. An identity borrowed from a dead Canadian, forged passports, messages sent by shortwave burst transmission or in invisible ink. A money cache buried for years in a field in upstate New York. ・・・
They embedded coded texts in ordinary-looking images posted on the Internet, and they communicated by having two agents with laptops containing special software pass casually as messages flashed between them. ・・・
The defendants were charged with conspiracy, not to commit espionage, but to fail to register as agents of a foreign government, which carries a maximum sentence of 5 years in prison; 9 were also charged with conspiracy to commit money laundering, which carries a maximum penalty of 20 years. They are not accused of obtaining classified materials. ・・・
・・・Turkey has recalled its ambassador to Israel and scrapped several joint military exercises.・・・
Turkey has banned an Israeli military flight from its airspace in apparent retaliation for Israel’s interception of the Free Gaza flotilla last month, in which nine pro-Palestinian Turkish activists were killed.
Officials in Ankara confirmed today that Israeli military aircraft would be permitted to enter Turkish airspace only on a “case by case” basis. There was no suggestion that civilian flights would be affected.・・・
・・・A fifth of the population of Anatolia before World War I was Christian, mainly Armenian and Greek; virtually all were expelled or murdered. The Turks killed more than a million-and-a-half Armenians, employing Kurdish militia to do most of the actual dirty work (that is why what is now “Turkish Kurdistan” was until 1916 “Western Armenia”. ・・・
Iraqi leader Saddam Hussein was a monster, but for the Turks a useful monster. The 1988 Anfal campaign against the Kurds of northern Iraq killed up to 180,000 of them, and the crackdown on the Kurds after the 1991 First Gulf War killed as many as 100,000. The Turks, by contrast, killed perhaps 20,000 to 40,000 Kurds during the 1980s and 1990s. ・・・
Iran exercises influence through the Alevi minority in Turkey, a heretical Muslim sect closer in some ways to Shi’ite than Sunni Islam. No accurate census of the Alevi exists; they may comprise between a fifth and a quarter of of Turkey’s population. The late Iranian leader, Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, declared the Alevi to be part of Shi’ite Islam in the 1970s, and they have been subjected to occasional violence by Sunni Turks.
The Iraq war undermined the position of the Kemalist military, which had bloodied its hands for decades in counter-insurgency operations against the Kurds. Erdogan’s Islamists argued that the weak glue of secular Turkish identity no longer could hold Turkey together, and proposed instead to win the Kurds over through Islamic solidarity. The Kurds are quite traditional Muslims; unlike the Turkish Sunnis, the provincial Kurds of southeastern Turkey and northern Iraq often practice female circumcision.
After the 2003 invasion of Iraq, the George W Bush administration saw no reason to back the Turkish generals who had let them down in Iraq, and instead threw their backing to the Islamists, on the theory that Erdogan represented a sort of “moderate Islam” that would provide an example to other prospective democratic Muslim regimes. When Erdogan won parliamentary elections in 2003, Bush invited him to the White House before he took office, a gesture that persuaded most Turks that America had jettisoned its erstwhile secular allies, as I wrote in 2007.
The Bush State Department stuck to the story of “moderate Islam” in Turkey even while Erdogan used outlandishly extra-legal methods to dismantle the secular establishment・・・. In fairness to the State Department, the idea that Turkey was home to a specially moderate strain of Islam was not the invention of American foreign policy analysts but of the Islam specialists of the Jesuit order. Father Christian Troll, a German Islamologist who advises Pope Benedict XVI, and his student Father Felix Koerner popularized the notion of a less virulent strain of Turkish Islam. ・・・
Iceland’s prime minister has married her partner under a new law legalizing same-sex marriage in the country. ・・・